Nephrolithiasis is a disease specified by the presence and creating sand or stones in the kidney. Kidney stones are formed from calcium, oxalate and phosphate which are present in the urine with higher levels than allowed. Several factors is linked with the appearance of nephrolithiasis such as poor diet, obesity, genetic predisposition, decreased fluid intake etc.
Also malnutrition influences in creation of kidney stones, so some specific foods can increase or reduce the risk of creating kidney stones.
Types of kidney stones
In order to successfully prevent from nephrolithiasis you need to determine based on chemical composition what type of renal stone is questioned.
There are 4 major groups of stones in the kidney:
This group of kidney stones is most common and consists of two smaller groups: calcium oxalate stones and calcium phosphate stones. There are various causes for calcium oxalate stones such as low pH urine, and high levels of calcium or oxalate in urine. Calcium phosphate stones mostly occur due to increased concentration of calcium in the urine and increased pH value of urine.
These stones usually occur as a result of a urinary tract infection.
Uric acid stones
They occur due to increased acidity of urine (pH value of urine is reduced) or increased concentration of uric acid in the urine.
This type is the least known and occurs in cystinuria. It is autosomal recessive disorder characterized by insolubility of cysteine (neutral amino acid) in the urine and as a result are formed calculi.
Reduction in sodium
To control the amount of sodium which daily enter is necessary before consumption of a particular product to be informed about its nutritional values. Avoid consumption of products who contain high levels of sodium as hot dog, fast food, canned food, frozen processed food and meat products (salami, bacon). Also, beware of substances that might contain “hidden sodium” like sodium bicarbonate, sodium alginate, sodium nitrate or nitrite, monosodium glutamate and others.
Reduction of animal protein
Is considering that animal protein increases risk of creating a calcium stone, because affects excretion of calcium and citrate in urine.
Avoid food with high level of oxalates
Part of oxalates that are excreted in the urine is produced in the body, but there are certain products that have high concentrations of oxalate and with their consumption increases levels of oxalates in the urine. These products are spinach, black tea, coke, chocolate and coffee.
Receiving adequate amounts of calcium
Attention! If you take calcium supplements should be careful, because it can increase the risk to creating of calcium oxalate stones, especially if the supplements don’t take during the meal.
Reduce the intake of purines
Eggs, meat and fish which contain purines that decomposes in the organism and as a product is get uric acid which is excreted through urine. Increased concentration of uric acid is condition for creating the kidney stones.
Drink water as much as possible